February 15, 2018 at 11:59 pm #4032
- Topics Started: 236
- Total Posts: 569
EPISODE 40: GREAT VALLEY MISADVENTURE
Oh No We’re Trapped (New Song)
We Did It Together (New Song)
Littlefoot and his friends were playing Stop the Seed. “Look Littlefoot!” cried Ducky, pointing behind Littlefoot.
“Nice try Ducky!” said Littlefoot, who thought Ducky, who was on the other team, was trying to trick him.
Chomper, who was on the same team as Littlefoot, however, had looked. “It’s Bron.” said Chomper.
Littlefoot looked and saw Bron and Shorty coming toward him. “Hi Dad!” said Littlefoot. Bron had just come with Shorty this time instead of with his whole herd. “Hello Shorty.”
“Hello Littlefoot.” said Shorty.
“What brings you here, Dad?” Littlefoot asked.
“We came to celebrate Shorty’s Hatch Day.” Bron replied.
“Today is my 10th Hatch Day.” Shorty said.
“Congratulations Shorty.” Littlefoot said.
“What would you like to do today Shorty?” Bron asked.
“How about we play a game.” Shorty replied.
“What kind of game?” Bron asked.
“How about Toss the Seed?” Shorty suggested.
“That’s a great idea.” Bron said.
They played Toss the Seed. Shorty’s team was winning. However, much to his team’s annoyance, he hogged the seed too much for himself instead of passing it. When he did pass it, though Chomper was on the same team, he never passed it to Chomper. This irked Littlefoot, who was on the other team After, having intercepted the pine cone from Shorty, who had failed to pass it to Cera, having scored, he asked “Why didn’t you pass it to Chomper?”
“Didn’t think it would work.” Shorty replied. Littlefoot knew that he was lying and that Shorty didn’t care much for Chomper because he was a Sharptooth. Eventually, Shorty’s team won, though narrowly, as his arrogance had allowed Littlefoot’s team to catch up. The game might have continued, but the sky, having become increasingly overcast as the day went on, began to pour rain.
“Drat, sky water!” Shorty moaned.
[Theme song “All I see is the day in front of us. All I see is the day in front of us. Burning bright with a new-born sun. Burning bright with a new-born sun. Come follow me. Hills to climb and valleys to roam
Oh, streams to follow all the way home
To the Land Before Time
It was still around late afternoon. “What do you want to do now?” Bron asked Shorty.
“I think I will explore one of the Great Valley caves.” Shorty said.
Cera, Ducky, Petrie, Spike, Chomper, and Ruby joined him. Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper were at the head of the group. They entered the cave. Before the others could go in, however, the ground began to shake. “Earthshake!” Shorty yelled. Littlefoot, Chomper, and Shorty ran forward into the cave to avoid being hit by falling rocks while the others moved back out of the cave to avoid them.
The rocks stopped falling. “Is everyone all right?” Littlefoot asked.
“Yes.” said Cera.
“I’m fine, but we can’t get back out, at least not the way we came.” Shorty replied.
“Chomper, are you ok?” Littlefoot asked.
“Yes, I’m fine.” Chomper said.
There was a bit of light in there that came through the top of the fallen pile of rocks. They could see a path heading into the cave, going downhill.
Littlefoot and the others tried pushing on the rocks. His friends tried to move the rocks on the other side. However, after spending some time in their efforts, they realized that it was futile. Littlefoot looked at the path going further into the cave. “Guess we’ll have to follow it.” he said.
They headed further into the cave. The light grew dimmer and dimmer.
“Ouch!” Littlefoot cried, feeling something hit him.
“Littlefoot?” came a voice.
“Shorty?” Littlefoot said.
“I can’t see that well in here.” Shorty said.
“Grab onto my tail and follow me.” Littlefoot said.
“I can’t see you! How can I do that?” Shorty grumbled.
Chomper grabbed Shorty. “Hey! What are you doing?” Shorty snapped.
“Bringing you to Littlefoot.” Chomper replied. Chomper brought Shorty to Littlefoot.
“How did you find him? I couldn’t even see him.” Shorty asked.
“My sniffer.” Chomper replied. Chomper grabbed onto Shorty and Shorty grabbed onto Littlefoot. Together, they moved forward. After a couple of minutes, Littlefoot nearly fell into a pit, but Shorty and Chomper were able to pull him to safety.
“I don’t like being in here in the dark. I didn’t even see that pit.” Littlefoot said.
“We’ll have to keep going. The other way is blocked.” said Chomper.
“But what if there is no other way out?” Shorty asked in concern.
“The only way we’ll know for sure is if we look first.” said Littlefoot.
Meanwhile, Bron was distraught. “I never intended for this to happen. This is going to wreck Shorty’s Hatch Day.”
“Do not worry. I am sure they are fine. I am.” Ducky reassured him.
“What are we going to do? My son and Shorty are trapped in there.” Bron said, if more to himself than the others.
“Chomper is also in there too. He is.” Ducky reminded him.
“We need to get help.” Bron said.
After traveling in the dark for several minutes, Littlefoot, Chomper, and Shorty came to a section of the cave that had some light that came in through cracks in the roof. “Finally, I can see again!” Shorty cried.
They noticed four paths ahead of them. One going uphill, one going downhill, one going left, and one going right. “Which one do we take?” Shorty asked.
“How about that one?” suggested Littlefoot, pointing toward the one that went upwards. “It appears that it heads back up.” The others agreed and they went up that path. The further they went on that path, the less light there was. Eventually, they reached a point where there was no light.
“Everyone stay close.” Littlefoot said.
Chomper began sniffing the air. “What are you doing?” Shorty asked.
“I smell Crawlers.” Chomper replied. He sniffed his way to them, grabbed them, and began eating them.
“YUCK! That’s disgusting! I’m so glad that I can’t see you right now!” Shorty exclaimed.
“Well, I have to eat something. I hadn’t eaten yet today.” Chomper replied.
“Yeah. I suppose.” Shorty replied. “Wait a minute…..we’re trapped in here with a Sharptooth! A Sharptooth! Do you realize what that means Littlefoot?” he exclaimed in alarm.
“Ummm…I.” Littlefoot muttered, wondering where he was going with this.
“It means that he might eat us!” Shorty replied.
“No, he wouldn’t. He’s our friend.” Littlefoot laughed.
“Not if he was hungry.” Shorty countered.
Meanwhile, Grandpa Longneck asked Bron “Any luck on freeing the young ones?”
“I’m afraid not, Papa Longneck.” Bron replied.
“Never ask a Longneck to do a Threehorn’s job.” The two Longnecks turned around. Topps had arrived. “Cera told me about the mishap. I can handle this.” he said.
“I don’t know. I couldn’t break through.” Bron said skeptically.
“That’s because you’re not a Threehorn.” Topps laughed. Bron scowled. He rammed the opening. The rocks broke. “See?” he said smugly. However, the force he’d hit the rocks with had loosened the rocks in the ceiling behind them. CRASH! There was another cave-in.
“Well done, Threehorn.” Bron said, smirking. Topps scowled.
“Well, I tried.” Mr. Threehorn said in resignation.
Meanwhile, Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper had reached a dead end. “Dead end again!” Shorty moaned.
“Let’s go back the other way.” Littlefoot suggested.
“Ouch!” Shorty cried.
“What is it?” Littlefoot asked.
“I hit something!” Shorty replied.
“Yeah, me.” Chomper said.
“Oops, sorry.” Shorty said.
They headed back the way they came. A bat darted in front of Littlefoot, causing him to stop abruptly. Chomper collided with Littlefoot and Shorty collided with Chomper. “Oof!” Shorty moaned as Chomper hit him.
“Ouch!” Chomper cried as Littlefoot bumped into him. The group went tumbling backward, going down a path they had passed up earlier on the way down. They tumbled for many feet, sometimes crashing into rocks as they went. This eventually triggered more rocks to fall, blocking the way behind them. Finally, they stopped tumbling.
“Guess we won’t be going back that way.” Shorty said.
“At least we’re all right.” Littlefoot said.
“All right? We’re trapped in a cave!” Shorty moaned. “Oh no we’re trapped. What are we going to do now?” Shorty sang.
“Don’t worry Shorty. We’ll find a way out. We’ll just find a way to do it somehow.” Littlefoot sang.
“We’ve got to keep going. I know it seems rough.
But we’ll get out of here soon enough.” Chomper sang.
“That’s easy for you to say cuz there’s something you forget to add.
You can always eat us if things get really bad!” Shorty sang. Chomper raised his eyebrows.
“Don’t worry. Things will be fine, just wait and see.
We’ll get out of here. Trust me.” Littlefoot sang.
“Littlefoot’s right. Everything will be fine.
You don’t need to continue to whine.” Chomper sang. Shorty, however, wasn’t very convinced.
“We’re trapped in a cave with nowhere to go!” Shorty sang.
“We’ll get out of here. Trust me, I know.” Littlefoot sang, finishing the song.
Meanwhile, Cera, Ducky, Petrie, Spike, and Ruby tried to see if they could find another way to Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper. “There might be a way to them in here.” Ducky suggested, pointing at a cave entrance.
“It’s too small for me to fit into there.” Bron said, shaking his head.
“But I can go. I can.” Ducky offered.
“Thanks Ducky.” Bron said.
Ducky headed into the cave. “Littlefoot! Chomper! Shorty!” she called. She searched for a good while. Eventually, at nightfall, she came back out. “Nope, nope, nope, this cave does not lead into theirs.” she said. The others had also searched nearby caves and been equally unsuccessful. Cera, Ducky, Petrie, Spike, and Ruby, still worried about Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper, went to bed.
Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper, meanwhile, still couldn’t find their way out of the cave. “I’m getting tired. Let’s rest.” Littlefoot said.
“Un uh! No way! I’m not going to sleep with him around! I’ll close my eyes and never wake up!” Shorty snapped. Chomper frowned and sighed.
“He doesn’t mean it Chomper.” Littlefoot tried to reassure him.
“I don’t know. He has said it twice now.” Chomper said sadly.
The three of them went to bed, Shorty taking the longest to fall asleep due to fear of Chomper. Early the next morning, they were all awoken by a growling sound.
“What’s that?” Shorty asked in alarm.
“It’s my stomach. I’m hungry.” Chomper replied.
“Well, don’t look at me!” Shorty said.
“Lay off him Shorty!” Littlefoot snapped.
Chomper got up, moving around in the dark, looking for a bat or something to eat. “He’s going to attack us!” Shorty cried.
“No, I’m not!” Chomper replied.
After searching for two hours, Chomper couldn’t find anything to eat. Littlefoot and Shorty, however, had stumbled across an underwater plant. It didn’t taste that great but at least it was edible.
“This tastes terrible!” Shorty moaned.
“At least we found something. Poor Chomper still hasn’t found anything to eat.” Littlefoot scolded him.
“Why did you befriend him anyway? Sharpteeth usually don’t make good friends.” Shorty asked him.
“it’s a long story.” Littlefoot replied.
“I’m trapped in a cave. I’ve got lots of time.” Shorty replied snarkily.
Meanwhile, the others had resumed their search for Chomper, Shorty, and Littlefoot. “They have been in there for a whole day now. I hope they’re all right.” Cera said.
“Me sure they fine.” Petrie replied.
“I wonder if the grownups have a plan to rescue them.” Ruby said.
“They’ve having a meeting about it right now.” Cera replied.
Meanwhile, at the Rock Circle, the grownups were in a meeting. “Our Littlefoot and Chomper and Shorty have been trapped underground for a full day now.” Grandpa Longneck said.
“What are we supposed to do? I tried it and couldn’t get through. If a Threehorn can’t do it, nobody can.” Mr. Threehorn murmured. Several others nodded in agreement.
“Well, we’ve got to think of something.” Bron said.
The grownups began arguing over what to do about the kids. As was usually the case, they ended up spending more time arguing over trivial things than actually getting closer toward a solution. The meeting lasted all day and was as unproductive as Congress.
“Do they usually take this long to decide what to do?” Bron asked, as the day neared its end.
“This is about normal.” Grandpa Longneck sighed.
“Do you have any ideas on how we could rescue them?” Bron asked his father-in-law.
Meanwhile, Littlefoot had been telling Shorty how he’d found Chomper. “So you thought his egg was the stolen one?” Shorty asked Littlefoot.
“Yes, so we took it back to the Great Valley.”
“So what did you do when he hatched and you found out that he was a Sharptooth?” Shorty asked.
“The others ran. I did too but then I came back.”
“Why did you come back?”
“He was all alone with nobody to care for him. Plus, he wasn’t harming anybody and didn’t seem dangerous.”
“And he never harmed any of you?”
Littlefoot thought on that one. Mostly Chomper had been harmless. However, one time he’d bitten Cera in the tail. But that was the worst that he’d ever done to them. “Well, there was one time that he bit Cera in the tail. But he was just a baby. He’s never done anything like that since then.” he said.
“How can you be sure that he won’t do it again?”
“I just trust him.”
Meanwhile, as it neared sunset, Bron and Grandpa Longneck had moved near the entrance of the cave. “So, we dig out a few of the rocks and then slip these trees underneath. Then we push on them with our tail and this will move the rocks up. Is that the plan?” Bron asked.
“Yes. It won’t make a big enough opening for us to fit through, but it should make one big enough for the young ones to crawl out of.” Grandpa Longneck replied.
The two of them began to dig. Slowly, the began to shift a few rocks out of the way. They had a decent amount of rocks moved out of the way by dark. “That’s good for now. We’ll finish it in the morning.” Grandpa Longneck said.
“I hope they’re all right.” Bron said.
“I’m sure they’ll be fine. They’ve been through worse before.” Grandpa Longneck replied.
Meanwhile, Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper went to sleep. Chomper had a strange dream. He dreamed that many of the things that he liked to eat were swarming around him. Stinging Buzzers, fish, Tickly Fuzzies, even hoppers all surrounded him. However, try as he might, he could never seem to reach them. Whenever he would approach them, they moved upward and out of his reach. “Come on!” he muttered angrily. He began to leap at them, snapping. CHOMP! CHOMP! They moved out his way, much to his irritation. He woke up, though he was still more asleep than awake. He smelled something good. He was very hungry. He leapt up, thinking it was one of the things in his dream, and bit. CHOMP!
“OUCH!” Littlefoot cried out. He jumped up and looked behind him to see that Chomper had his teeth sunk into his tail. “Chomper, what are you doing?!” he cried in alarm.
Chomper was taken aback. It took him a few seconds to realize that he wasn’t dreaming, he was awake. His sniffer had tricked him. What he’d smelled was Littlefoot. He realized with horror that he had bitten Littlefoot. “I’m so sorry! I was in my Sleep Story and was hungry and somehow I just bit you and found that it wasn’t my Sleep Story but was real!” he moaned, moving away from Littlefoot.
Littlefoot’s shout had woken up Shorty, who had seen Chomper biting Littlefoot. “You nasty Sharptooth! Trying to eat Littlefoot in his sleep I see! ” he shouted.
“I’m sorry. I din’t mean it!”
“You’re just a typical Sharptooth and that’s all your ever be! Get out of here and don’t ever come back!” Shorty shouted at him.
Chomper took off, tears streaming from his face. “Wait, come back!” Littlefoot yelled after him. He turned to glare at Shorty. “He didn’t mean it. Why did you have to say that?” he snapped.
“Because it’s true. He’s just a regular Sharptooth and can’t be trusted!” Shorty replied.
“No, Chomper is different!” Littlefoot snapped argumentatively.
“First he bit Cera in the tail. Now he’s bitten you. Why do you think he can be trusted?” Shorty asked.
Chomper, meanwhile, walked further into the cave, sobbing. His inner-Sharptooth, that he’d tried so hard to suppress, had come out again. The last time it had come out was when he’d lived on the Island, but his friends weren’t to know of that as they had been cowering and not looking. Maybe he was a danger to his friends, especially while hungry. His stomach rumbled, but he tried to ignore it. He would have to move away from the others. He was a danger to them while hungry like this.
Meanwhile, Littlefoot called for him, looking for him. “Chomper! Chomper! Where are you?” He went searching for the Sharptooth. “Chomper! Come back!” He moved further into the cave, searching for his friend, and Shorty, not wanting to be left behind, followed.
“Wait for me! I’m coming!” he said.
Chomper, meanwhile, was searching for food. He spotted a prehistoric bat ahead, barely able to be seen, but his Sharptooth’s eyes could see what many other eyes could not. He silently crept toward it. The bat, however, spotted him just in time and moved away. Chomper ran after it. He turned a corner. With horror, he saw that th bat had gathered a bunch of its friends. Chomper ran for it, yelling. “Ahhhh!”
Littlefoot heard Chomper yell. “Chomper’s in trouble!”
“He’s a Sharptooth. He can take care of himself.” Shorty replied.
“He’s my friend and I’m going to help him!” Littlefoot said. He took off after the sound of Chomper’s yell and Shorty followed him.
Chomper continued to run. He fell into an underground stream and was swept away by the current. With difficulty, he managed to keep his head above water. Eventually, he grabbed onto a rock hanging out over the water and was able to pull himself up onto shore.
Meanwhile, the sun rose. Bron and Grandpa Longneck returned to the cave so that they could finish clearing a path to get through. After some digging, there were able to get a big enough space to push a couple of felled trees underneath and begin to push up. As they did so, they kept adding more and more logs for support. They used the topmost logs to keep pushing slowly up until they had enough room to add another log. This enabled them to push up from underneath. They also did the same inward, pushing a log in as far as they could reach and building up that way. They eventually had three trees inward on each side, enabling them to get across to the other side and successfully be able to get through the rubble. The outward layer had the most trees on it and the inner layer had less, meaning that one had to stoop further and further as one went further in. They eventually were able to create a space big enough for even Ruby to fit under. Feeling somewhat worn out, Grandpa Longneck and Bron went off to take a rest, for it was now well past noon.
Cera, Ducky, Petrie, Spike, and Ruby, meanwhile, had been watching them. “It looks like they’ve made a hole big enough for us to get in even if they can’t get in.” Ruby remarked.
“I hope it doesn’t cave in after we’ve gone in and we end up getting trapped too. That thing doesn’t look very sturdy.” Cera said.
“We should still give it a try. We should. We should. The others might be hurt. They might.” Ducky suggested.
“Me agree. We go now. Grownups may take while to get rested.” Petrie said. The group went into the cave. After some traveling, they reached the point where Littlefoot and the others had accidentally blocked the path with rocks.
“This is going to take a while to clear!” Cera grumbled.
Chomper, meanwhile, continued to search for food. He wasn’t sure where Littlefoot and Shorty were at, and he felt that that was a good thing. If they were the only source of food in here, he preferred to starve to death by not finding them. He feared that the part of him that he called “bad Chomper” would take over if he was hungry enough and laid eyes on them. RRRRGH! His stomach growled. He spotted something up ahead. Was it Littlefoot or Shorty or was it something else? He sniffed, ready to turn the other way in case it was either of the Longnecks. It didn’t smell like them but like a cave bat. He moved toward it. The bat didn’t see him. He slowly tiptoed toward it. He sniffed again and could smell it right above him. From where the smell was coming from, it appeared to be a couple of feet above him. He leaped up and bit. CHOMP!
SCWAH! SCWAH! SCWAH! The bat let out a high-pitched screech. Chomper held on with his teeth as the bat took off, trying to escape. Normally, he’d have let go, as he, though not too bothered by heights, didn’t like hanging from a moving creature being spun about like a top. However, his hunger made him continue to hold on.
The bat tried to kick Chomper loose with its four limbs. Eventually, Chomper was knocked lose and crashed into the ground. The bat flew off, hurt on the wing where Chomper had bitten it, but otherwise uninjured. Chomper also got up, a tad sore for the fall, but also mostly uninjured. “Come back dinner!” he shouted in frustration at the departing bat. “Now what?” he moaned.
Shorty and Littlefoot, meanwhile, continued to search for Chomper. “I don’t know why we should look for a possibly dangerous Sharptooth rather than try and find a way out. We’re heading further in and likely to get more lost in here.” Shorty complained.
“Look here, Chomper is a good friend. He may act out a bit when hungry, but he’s still our friend. If you don’t want to go look for him, you can go try and find a way out on your own!” Littlefoot scolded him.
“You’re right. Even if he did bite you, we can’t just leave him in here. But how are we going to find him if we can’t see?”
“Chomper! We’re over here! Chomper!”
“Chomper! You can come back now! I take back what I said! We’re over here Chomper!”
Meanwhile, Cera had, with the help of the others, broken through the rocks. Cera shattered the last group of rocks in the way by smashing them with her horn. “Now we can get through and go find them.” she said.
“We need to hurry. They may be hurt and need help.” Petrie said.
“They may need our help but we won’t be able to help them if we don’t know where they are.” Ruby replied.
“I think we should split up. That way one of us is bound to find them sooner.” Ducky said.
“But if we split up, we are also more likely to lose ourselves in this cave too.” Ruby mused.
“Maybe we should go in two groups.” Cera suggested.
“Good idea Cera.” Petrie said.
Spike sniffed the air and wandered off. “Come back Spike!” the others called after him. Spike soon found the spot where Littlefoot and Shorty found the underwater plants. He found some of these himself and began eating them. Though they weren’t the best tasting, he ate pretty much every kind of plant, including stinkweed, so it didn’t bother him. “Spike, this is now time for a snack! We are supposed to be looking for Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper.” Ducky scolded him.
“Wait, maybe Spike is onto something. If he found food here, then maybe Littlefoot and Shorty found food here too as they would need food. And if they found food here, they might be near here so they can get more of it.” Ruby said.
“Let’s hope so.” Cera replied.
In the meantime, Chomper continued to search for food and a way out. He was very hungry now. He sniffed, trying to find food. He thought he could smell Shorty some distance off. He turned and ran the opposite direction of the smell. Shorty, meanwhile, said “I heard something in here. It might be Chomper.”
They went to the place where they thought Chomper was, though they couldn’t see at all, but couldn’t find anything. “If it was, it looks like he left.” Littlefoot said in disappointment.
Chomper, meanwhile, came across a spot where light was coming in from a big hole in the ceiling. Also, water poured in from above and into an underground stream nearby. He smelled his water to the water and began to drink. At least it would help with his thirst. He looked in the water to see if he could find fish or Snapping Shells but was unable to find any. “Still no food for me.” he sighed. He saw something moving. He sniffed the air and realized that it was another cave bat. Chomper soon realized that it was the one that he’d attacked earlier. He leaped at it again and bit once more. This time, he did more damage. However, once more, the Vulcanops kicked him loose. He fell spluttering into water. At least, it first appeared to be water. However, as he began to sink, he soon realized what it was. “Sinking Sands! Help!” he cried Shorty and Littlefoot came running, hearing his call. By the time they arrived, the Sinking Sand had come up to his neck.
Shorty reached out one of his limbs. “Grab on!” he called to Chomper.
“But I thought you said that I was just a typical Sharptooth and not worth it.”
“I’ve changed my mind. Now grab on!”
Chomper grabbed onto him. Littlefoot grabbed onto Shorty who helped pull Chomper out. “Thank you guys.” Chomper said.
Chomper sniffed the air and smelled the Vulcanops, who, being hurt from being bitten a second time, hadn’t gone far. “Excuse me for a second. I, er, found something to eat.” he told the others. He went around a corner and spotted the Vulcanops, which was resting from having fought off him a second time. Quickly, he struck, this time hitting the neck. The bite killed the creature and Chomper hungrily ate it, leaving only the bones behind. He soon returned to Shorty and Littlefoot. “There, I found a yummy Cave Flyer. Now I should be fine.” He sniffed the air, for he smelled new scents approaching. “It’s the others!” he said excitedly. Chomper led them, by way of his Sniffer, to the others.
Holding on to each other and moving forward, sometimes with the help of Chomper’s Sniffer, they were able to find their way to the exit. They were met by Grandpa and Grandma Longneck as well as Bron. “We noticed that you young ones had vanished and we figured that you went in there after them.” said Grandma Longneck.
“We worked together to get out the cave.” said Littlefoot.
“We did it together.
We got out of there.” Shorty sang.
“We worked together. We all did our share.” Ruby sang.
“I found out that Chomper can be trusted after all.
And thanks to his sniffer, we didn’t have a nasty fall.” Shorty sang.
“Shorty and Littlefoot helped save me from the Sinking Sand.” Chomper sang.
“Glad to have lent a hand.” Shorty sang in reply.
“We did it together. We get them out of cave.
And our friends we manage to save!” Petrie sang.
“We did it together!” they all sang, finishing the song.
The group went to bed, for it was now past sunset. Littlefoot, Shorty, and Chomper had been saved.August 24, 2019 at 2:50 pm #9479
- Topics Started: 0
- Total Posts: 1743
You must be logged in to reply to this topic.